Types of sails
A sail is a sheet or plate that sets the speed of a ship, taking over the wind flow and converting it into energy for forward motion. The sails adjust the direction of the ship. A sail is an integral part of the ship’s sailing weapons.
Basic classification of sails
All sails differ from each other in shape, type and attachment. For example, the difference in configuration is a triangular sail, a trapezoid or rectangular sail. In the place of attachment: one of the edges is attached to the ridge, one of the sides joins the mast, either side of the sail is attached to the sheet.
These sails look like a square or rectangular. They are always attached to their upper part. The lower part of the sail is in a slightly bent position to the top of the sail. Such sails are widely spread on ships, but it is very difficult to maneuver a ship.
Latin sail have a triangular shape. This sail made a revolution in sailing. It was the firts sail that allowed boats to sail against the wind, so people had opportunity to sail wherever they want in different wind conditions. It is still used by some traditional fishermen in the Mediterranean.
Sails on a modern yacht
Mainsail – As the name says, it is the main sail on a boat. It provides power and stability. It is attached to the mast and to the boom of a boat. The sail is controlled by the main sheet.
Jib – It is attached to the top of the mast, to a frestay of the boat and to a jib sheet, which controls and trimms the jib.
Genoa – It is usually bigger size than a jib. It is also attached to the top of the mast, to a frestay of the boat and to a genoa sheet, which controls and trimms the genoa.
Gennaker – It is a bigger size sail, attached also at front of the boat, to the mast and to a bow of the boat. As it has bigge rsurface, it allowes faster sailing in the run direction, but it does not allow sailing higher to wind as jib or genoa.
Spinnaker – It has bigger surface than a gennaker. It gives even better results sailing downwind, but it doesn’t allow to sail high to wind.